CICIM or JIJIM
The extra-weft semi-wrap float is a technique in which additional colored yarns are interlaced into the regular system of warp and weft in mostly balanced or weft- faced plain ground weave. Since the finished pattern forms solid lines over the plain ground weave, it gives the appearance of couched satin stitch and has even been erroneously referred to as a type of embroidery applied to plain weave flat- woven rugs.
It is thought that the term cicim is derived from the Turkish word cici (small and delightful) plus the first person possessive suffix im In Iran the word jajim or jejim is used to describe one variety of warp-faced weave which produces narrow strips that are sewn together after they have been woven.
The extra-weft thread or design yarn, generally being thicker than the warp and weft of the ground weave, gives a raised or couched effect. All cicim designs are in the form of narrow contours because of the technique. These solid-line motifs.may also be filled in with other techniques such as zili or sumak, or they may be woven close together with no ground weave visible in between. The weaver works on the reverse side of the fabric, thus the face of the rug remains at the back of the loom away from her. She first passes a shoot of weft, generally the same color as the warp, and depresses this with the beater. She then takes a rather long colored thread, passes this extra-weft from the back of the fabric to the front (away from her), carries it over a pair or warps and, after passing the weft, brings the extra-weft to the back of the fabric again where she leaves it hanging in front of herself. She then repeats the same sequence for each color or motif across the width of the fabric. All the pattern wefts are left hanging in front of her on the reverse side of the fabric until the next row. Every two sheds she passes a shoot of weft, depresses it and floats each of the extra- wefts over a set of warps, passing them to the back side to hang there. In some cases a second weaver may sit behind the loom to guide the threads through and across the face of the weave. In the finished cicim the loose ends are all on the back side.
(in cicim technique on balanced plain weave)
Scattered motifs (in cicim technique on balanced plain weave) is the form generally used to produce localized, isolated contour patterns on balanced plain weave. It is used on fine lightweight rugs, curtains, hearth- covers, ground rugs and divan covers. Occasionally strips 30-40 cm wide of a different color are woven and then stitched to gether to make large rugs or covers. Fine cicim seccades are woven in many regions such as Kecimuhsine, Konya. In the Kayseri, Nigde, Konya, Gaziantep, Malatya and Sivas regions, lengths of broad ground weave with localized, scatter- ed motifs in cicim technique are sewn together to form fine covers (perde). In Sivrihisar, Eskisehir and the Konya region small cicim rugs known as göllü (with a lake) are woven with a white ground and a small rectangular central medallion. In Obruk, Konya and around Karapinar, lightweight hearth rugs are still woven, but they are not so fine as those which were once woven there.
(in cicim technique on weft-faced plain weave)
This technique, scattered motifs in cicim technique, is similar to the first but is a tougher fabric since it is woven on weft- faced weave. It is comparatively rare, being used for heybes, cuvals and rugs. Also some rugs may have scattered motifs on a weft- faced ground weave such as the seccades of the Helvaci near Izmir.
(in cicim technique on balanced plain weave)
This technique is generally used to produce a solid design on plain weaves which are sturdier than the two-warp type. In this variation extra-weft is semi-wrapped around three warps. The motifs are woven close together to give a compacted but contoured design which covers most of the surface of the woven piece. The technique is used for floor rugs, heybes, cuvals and hurcs.
This form of cicim is often confused with offset zili, probably because the floats are compacted as in zilis without large gaps between the motifs. However, weavers who use this particular form often do not weave zili. The basic sequence is similar to scattered pattern cicims, although the result looks different. It may be distinguished from contour zili and design filling offset zili by looking at the reserve side of the fabric. There the design thread covers the same line area as it does on the face. This is so because the design thread returns over this area to continue the same motif on the next shed upwards instead of floating straight up vertically on the reverse side in each shed as is the case in contour zili. This gives a dotted effect.
(in cicim technique on weft-faced weave)
This form of cicim tends to be very sturdy since it has both a solid design and a weft-faced ground. It is sometimes used on weaves in alternation with bands of plain color. In the regions around Malatya, Sivas, Gaziantep, Maras and Kayseri these are woven in two pieces and joined together to produce good-sized ru It is also used to weave heybes, cuvals and yastıks .