Rugs are generally classified as Persian or Turkish, Caucasian and Turkomans. Turkey is the most accessible to the foreigner and Constantinople the nearest rug market, so we will consider the rugs generally classed as Turkish. Formerly Smyrna was considered synonymous with Turkish for a rug, but that mistake has been discovered by intelligent rug collectors.
A great variety of rugs are made in the disrict near Smyrna ; but these are, as has already been explained, largely carpet rugs. The old-time Smyrna rug with large figures and red, blue, and green colouring is largely superseded by the finer makes for which the best Persian design are often employed. Some bear the names of the towns where the factories are located, as Oushack, Sparta, etc.
Turkish rugs proper rank in the following order: Ghiordes, Kulah, Ladiks, Pergamos, Melez, Konias, and Anatolians. Mosul and Kurdish rugs are also made in Turkey.
These rugs come from the territory bounded by the Caspian Sea, the Sea of Asal, Afghanistan, Persia, and the Chinese frontier. Wild nomad tribes occupy this district and weave rugs of great beauty and very ancient design. Bokhara, Yomoud, Afghan or Khiva, Bokhara, Samarkand, Beluchistan, and Kashar all come from this region.
It is somewhat difficult to classify Persian rugs in the order of their merit, as there such a difference in individual opinion.
This list does not profess to be a final judgment upon them, but simply a personal opinion.
Kirman, Kirmansha, Tabriz or Kermanshah, Senna, Sarak, Saraband, Ferehan, Herat, Hammedan, Shiraz, Ghorevan, Meshed or Muskabad, and Khorasan.
The Caucasus is the gateway from Europe into Persia, and although at the present time Russia shares with Persia the possession of this territory, still rugs of fine make and usually classed as Persian come into the market from this region in great quantities. They are known to trade as Daghestan, Shirvan, Kabistan, Kazak, Lesghian, Tzitzi, Sumac, etc.